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      OLED顯示技術與LED顯示技術的區別
      發布時間:2016-12-30 閱讀:3528次   打印本頁 || 關閉窗口

      各位一定頻繁的看到“LED”這個名詞,它和OLED僅僅雖然只有一個字母之差,但實際上兩者描述的是完全不同的事物。我們都知道液晶面板是通過背光源發光,通過液晶分子的折射而產生各種不同的顏色的,液晶分子自身不能發光,而LED則僅僅指的只是背光源。而OLED則自身能夠發光,因此不需要背光源。LED用的是金屬材料,而OLED用的是有機物材料;OLED更先進些,它不用燈光照射就能自主發光,對比度更好些,平時用的,LED是要有背光燈照射才能看到東西的。

        一、LED發光原理與發光材料

        半導體材料有一個非常有趣的特性,就是所謂的載子;載子分為兩類:一類為電子,帶負電;另一類為電洞,帶正電。LCD的發光原理是利用兩種載子在某些條件下可以結合,釋放出的能量以光子的形式釋出而發光。它會依材料的不同,電子和電洞所占有的能階不同,也就是說電子和電洞的相對能接高度差即是決定兩載子所結合發出能量的高低,便可以產生具有不同能量的光子,藉此可以控制LED所發出光的波長,也就是光譜或顏色。

        LED所使用的材料是以3A-5A元素化合物半導體為主(如GaP,GaAs,GaN,AlInGaP等等)。而至于它為什么會發出不同顏色的光,就得是LED他本身的材料而定,例如:紅光就用AlInGa(鉮化鋁鎵)、綠光就用GaP(磷化鎵)、藍光就用ZnS(硫化鋅)或GaInN(氮化鎵銦)…等等。

        LED依其發光波長來區分,可大致分為可見光二極管與紅外線發光二極管。其發光原理是利用半導體中電子與電洞結合時,將釋放的能量以光子的形式釋出而發光,而發光二極管所使用的材料以3A、5A族元素的化合物半導體為主,如:GaAs,GaP,AlGaP,AlInGaP等等,其發光波長和亮度會因所使用的材料而有所差異。

        二、OLED--有機發光二極管

        目前發光二極管所利用的材料均為無機半導體材料,較難應用于大面積并需要有高分辨率的組件(EX:屏幕),要解決這些問題有賴于新型有機半導體材料(即含碳氫化合物之材料),將它涂布在導電的玻璃片上,通以電流,就可以放出各種不同波長的光。

        1、OLED發光原理

        有機發光原理和發光二極管的發光原理相似,同樣利用材料特性,將電子電洞在發光層上結合,電子由激發態降回基態,將多余能量以波的形式釋出,而達到發光的功能。因此才有OLED和PLED的稱呼。(OLED是小分子的有機電激發光二極管,PLED是聚合物的有機電激發光二極管。)

        2、OLED結構

        有機發光二極管基本的結構圖如下圖所示,同樣是利用材料的特性,將電子電洞在發光層上結合,而將電子由激發態的形式降回基態,而將多余的能量以波的形式釋出,因而達到有不同波長的發光組件的產生。OLED是利用在二個電極間分別注入電子及電洞,并利用有機分子的激發,而達到發光的功能。其中陽極為ITO導電玻璃膜,以蒸鍍方式,附著于玻璃或透明塑料基板上,陰極則含有Mg、Al、Li等金屬。在二個電極間則是多個有機薄膜形成的發光區域,包含電洞注入區、電洞傳遞區、有機發光層及電子傳遞層,在實際量產時,考慮不同需求,有時還會包含其它不同薄膜。

        3、OLED彩色化方式

        目前有機發光二極管以綠光的技術**成熟,藍光及紅光仍待商品化。有機發光二極管顯示器之色彩分為單色、多彩及全彩,多彩系由數個單色的顯示區域組成,每一區域仍是單色;全彩是由紅、綠、藍三色光的重復畫素組成,畫素尺寸愈精細,分辨率愈高。在顯示器的應用上,全彩是市場成功必要條件。

        4、OLED技術有何優點?

        OLED是有機發光二極管,又稱為有機電激光顯示因為具備輕薄、省電等特性,因此從2003年開始,這種顯示設備在MP3播放器上得到了廣泛應用,而對于同屬數碼類產品的DC與手機,此前只是在一些展會上展示過采用OLED屏幕的工程樣品,還并未走入實際應用的階段。但OLED屏幕卻具備了許多LCD不可比擬的優勢,因此它也一直被業內人士所看好。

        5、OLED應用

        OLED現階段主要應用于車用型顯示器、行動電話、游戲機、掌上型可攜式小型計算機、個人數字助理器(PDA)、汽車音響及數字相機…等。未來將朝高熒光效率材料的開發、5吋全彩顯示器的制作、有機組件新應用領域的開發、高分辨率的全彩化小尺寸顯示器發展,如智能型行動電話等。

        于目前的液晶顯示技術,OLED擁有超薄、抗震性能好、可視角度大、響應時間短、低溫性好、發光效率高等多種優點。需要說明的是,雖然OLED已經逐漸被人們所熟知,但現在我們并沒有大面積的看到OLED產品上市。

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